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The science behind genetic testing

What is DNA and what does it do?

DNA consists of biochemical building blocks called nucleotides of 4 different types: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine (abbreviated as A, T, C and G). These nucleotides are lined up in a specific sequence forming long  molecules called chromosomes. Every nucleus of a human cell contains 46 chromosomes, 23 which you inherited from your mother and another 23 from your father. With modern technologies such as “Next Generation Sequencing”, the sequence of these nucleotides can be read. It contains the basic information of how your body works. 


Within the structure of the DNA we can identify patterns in the sequence, that are called “genes”. Humans have about 21.000 genes, which are distributed among the chromosomes. The  sequence of each gene contains instructions how to make a protein, like for instance keratin, collagen, insulin, blood coagulation factors, digestive enzymes, etc. 


Although 99,9 % of the genetic sequence is conserved among all humans, small variations make every individual DNA sequence unique. A difference in the sequence of a gene can produce a protein that is functioning different than in other people. That is why we are all different, with different hair, different skin, different body composition, different metabolism, different health concerns, etc.


Since the first human reference genome was published in 2001, the scientific community has been publishing their findings about genetic differences and consequences for the body. By comparing your personal genetic sequence with this data, we obtain  information about how your unique body works. This way we can identify your stronger and weaker points and detect which genes produce proteins that work well, and which ones are a bit slower or not working at all. The information allows us to determine the best personalized way for you to diet, exercise, which nutrients you require more of, which ones you should avoid, etc. Matching your eating and exercise habits to your genetic profile is the quickest and easiest way to get fit, lose weight and gain lean muscle mass.


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